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刘家峡水库西南部水域表层沉积物重金属污染评价
刘翔,郭建明,樊海龙,张生银,张顺存,雷天柱,王建丰
0
(1. 中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
2. 甘肃省油气资源研究重点实验室/中国科学院油气资源研究重点实验室, 甘肃 兰州 730000;
3. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;
4. 中国科学院广州地球化学研究所有机地球化学国家重点实验室, 广东 广州 510640)
摘要:
为了研究刘家峡水库西南部水域表层沉积物中重金属的污染状况,对采集的55个表层沉积物样品中的6种重金属元素Cr、Cd、Ni、Cu、Zn和Pb的含量进行测试,其平均含量分别为77.03μg/g、0.16μg/g、33.53μg/g、32.09μg/g、291.77μg/g、22.44μg/g。在研究表层沉积物重金属含量空间分布的基础上,运用单因子污染指数法、内梅罗综合污染指数法、地累积指数法、潜在生态风险指数法,综合判断水库的受污染程度并对其潜在生态风险进行评估。6种元素的地累积指数排序依次为:Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Cr;潜在生态风险系数排序依次为:Cd > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cr;各区域重金属污染程度或潜在生态风险水平依次为黄河主河道 > 大夏河河口 > 黄河横剖面。综合4种方法的评价结果,认为对刘家峡水库西南部表层沉积物重金属污染及潜在生态风险评价贡献率较高的重金属污染因子是Zn、Cu和Cd;综合相关性分析与主成分分析,认为研究区沉积物重金属污染主要来源于两个方面:(1) Zn、Cu主要来源于生活污染或工业污染;(2) Cd主要来源于工农业活动产生的污染。
关键词:  表层沉积物  重金属  污染程度  风险评价  刘家峡水库
DOI:10.19826/j.cnki.1009-3850.2020.08003
投稿时间:2019-10-14修订日期:2019-12-06
基金项目:刘家峡水库泥沙淤积(编号:Y728JJ1GJM)、三维构造建模与恢复(编号:Y624YL1GJM)联合资助。
Evaluation of Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Sediments of Southwest Liujiaxia Reservoir, Gansu
Liu Xiang, Guo Jianming, Fan Hailong, Zhang Shengyin, Zhang Shuncun, Lei Tianzhu, Wang Jianfeng
(1. Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000, China;
2. Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province, Lanzhou 730000, China;
3. University of Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China;
4. State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Guangzhou 510640, China)
Abstract:
Liujiaxia reservoir is located in the upper reaches of the Yellow River in southwest Gansu province. As a large-scale hydropower project, Liujiaxia reservoir has played a great role in economic and social developments of Gansu and Qinghai provinces since it was built in 1974. In order to study the heavy metal pollution in surface sediments of southwest Liujiaxia reservoir, the contents of six metal elements such as Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) for 55 surface sediment samples from Liujiaxia reservoir. The results show the average concentrations of Cr, Cd, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were 77.03μg/g, 0.16μg/g, 33.53μg/g, 32.09μg/g, 291.77μg/g and 22.44μg/g, respectively. Based on comprehensive analyses of the spatial distribution of heavy metal content in surface sediments, the single factor pollution index, Nemero comprehensive index, geoaccumulation index and potential ecological risk index, the pollution degrees of the studied area and its potential ecological risk were evaluated. The pollution levels of the geoaccumulation index were in the order of Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Cr, the potential ecological risk were in the order of Cd > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cr. The pollution levels of heavy metal were in the order of the main channel of Yellow River > the estuary of Daxia River > the cross section of Yellow River. Zn, Cu and Cd were the most important pollutional factors in surface sediments in southwest Liujiaxia reservoir. Comprehensive correlation analysis and principal component analysis showed that Zn and Cu mainly come from domestic or industrial pollution while Cd mainly comes from pollution caused by industrial and agricultural activities.
Key words:  surface sediments  heavy metals  pollution levels  risk assessment  Liujiaxia Reservoir

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